|Part 3 of Qingting san da shice quantu ji 清廷三大實測全圖集 / Wang Qianjin, Liu Quofang zhengli 汪前進, 劉若芳整理. Beijing: Waiwen chubanshe 外文出版社, 2007.
Originally published 1929-1932.
Each case includes maps accompanied by index volume (29 x 42 cm.).
Includes bibliographical references.
"Qianlong Atlas (103 sheets, 365 p. index) reproduced from the 1931 facsimile. Originally published 1775; engravers, Michel Benoist, et al. Most extensive atlas of the period, covering much of Asia and central Asia, Arctic Ocean in the north, Indian Ocean in the south, East China Sea in the east, and the Mediterranean Sea in the west. 103 sheets arranged in 13 horizontal rows thus deriving the name Qianlong [Period] in Thirtheen Rows [十三排]"
Title variants: Qing Qianlong Neifu yutu 清乾隆内府輿圖 ; Palace map of the Chinese Empire ; Jesuit map of China ; Huangyu quantu 皇輿全圖 ; Huangyu quanlan tu 皇輿全覽圖; Qianlong Atlas.
This map is based upon the surveys made by the Jesuit Fathers Felix da Rocha 傅作霖 and Joseph d’Espinha 高慎思 between 1756 and 1759. The cartography was completed by Fr. Michel Benoist 蔣友仁 in Beijing. Benoist and his Chinese co-workers prepared the wood-cut edition in 1769, and under their guidance it was engraved on copper plates (銅版) in 1775. Since then, these plates and the original maps have been kept in the Palace unseen by the public until 1924, when the Museum staff discovered a complete set of the original copper plates.
The map was commissioned by the Qianlong emperor in order to utilize Jesuit expertise in cartography in creating an accurate map of the empire, especially the restive western regions of Xinjiang and Qinghai, as well as the Yunnan-Guizhou region and the Tibetan plateau. Thus the map covers almost the entire Asian continent, and consists of 103 sheets using the traditional Chinese rectangular-grid mapping system modified to suit longitude and latitude.
103 sheets, arranged in 13 horizontal strips. Also uses oblique grids and is divided into 13 horizontal strips, each of five degrees of latitude, with 7.8 cm between latitude lines. Original version: Qing Qianlong Neifu yutu. China : engraved by Michel Benoist on copper plates in 1773 and printed in 1775. Based on earlier map "Huangyu quanlan tu."
Scale: ca. 1:1,500,000
Theodore N. Foss, “A Western Interpretation of China: Jesuit Cartography” in East Meets West (1988), pp. 109-251.
Endymion Wilkinson, Chinese history, a manual (2000), p. 148.
Joseph Needham, Science & civilisation in China (1954), v. 3, pp. 583-586.
N. Standaert, Handbook of Christianity in China (2001), p. 700, 759-763.
J.B. Harley and David Woodward. The history of cartography (1987), v. 2.2
Ad Dudink & Nicolas Standaert, Chinese Christian Texts Database (CCT-Database)