|JapSin I, 122|
Tian Ru yin 天儒印.
By Li Andang 利安當 (Antonio de Santa María Caballero, 1602–1669).
One juan. Chinese bamboo paper in one volume. No date or place of publication.
The Latin inscription on the cover reads: “Cohaerentiae doctrinae | litterarorum sinensium | cum doctrina christiana | a p. Antonio a S. | María, franciscano.”There is a preface (three folios) by Wei Xuequ 魏學渠, dated 1664 (Kangxi 3) and another (two folios) by Shang Huqing 尚祜卿 with the same date, written at the Xitang 西堂 in Jinan 濟南 (Shandong), where Caballero was a missioner. The title of the book is given on folio 1 as Tian Ru. Caballero is given as the commentator and Shang Huqing as the reviser 泰西利安當詮義 | 天民尚祜卿參閱.
The main text consists of twenty-five folios. There are eight columns in each half folio. The first column of each paragraph has twenty-one characters and the other columns twenty. The upper middle of each folio bears the title of the book together with the number of the folio.
This book gives a selection of ideas in the Four Books that are close to Catholic ideas and commentaries on them. The author interprets the character Tian as the Lord of Heaven, Tianzhu 天主.
Antonio de Santa María Caballero was born in Baltaná, Spain, 1602. He joined the order of St. Francis in 1618, was ordained in 1626 and entered China from Manila in 1633. He worked in Fujian and Jiangnan, but was later forced to return to Manila. In 1643 he was appointed prefect apostolic in China, where he worked in Jinan (Shandong). In 1665 he was banished to Guangzhou where he died in 1669. Cf. SF, vol. II; Rosso, pp. 104–122; JWC 2:108–113; DMB 1:24–31.
Wei Xuequ 魏學渠 (zi 子存, hao 青城) was a native of Jiashan 嘉善 (Zhejiang). He obtained his juren degree during the Shunzhi period (1644–1661) and became Circuit Intendant (daotai 道臺). He was known as poet, essayist, and calligrapher.
Shang Huqing (zi 天民, 識己, hao 韋堂) was a native of Shanyang 山陽 (Jiangsu). He obtained his juren degree in 1639 and became magistrate of Wei Xian 濰縣 (Shandong) in 1659, but was dismissed within less than a year. He took up his residence in Jinan, where he met Caballero and became a Christian. In his preface to the Tian Ru yin, he says that he has been a Christian for a number of years and that for some time has been studying the teaching of the Catholic church under the guidance of Caballero and Jean Valat, a Jesuit missioner in Shandong. His assiduous efforts gave him confidence to say that, though he is not an expert, he is more than a beginner. Finally, he mentions two books, the Bu-Ru wen’gao 補儒文告 and the Zhengxue liushi 正學鏐石 (cf. Jap-Sin I, 134), which he says are ready for the press. Cf. JWC 2:110–113.
Hsü Tsung-tse (1949, pp. 130–131) reproduces the postscript to Tian Ru yin by the son of Shang Huqing, who clearly attributes the authorship of this book to his father (cf. also the biography of Shang Huqing by Wang Chongmin 王重民 in Tushu jikan 圖書季刊, new ed., vol. 5, no. 1). Also according to Francesco Saverio Filippucci in his Sagitta retorta of 1687 (ms. in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Rome, F.G. 1247, 8, f. 5v), quoted by Hubert Verhaeren (“Notes bibliographiques” in Le Bulletin Catholique de Pékin, 30, 1943, pp. 183–190), Shang Huqing, who appears in the text as reviser, is the author of this book; cf. SF 81:292 n. 51 and 71:257 n. 46.
Cf. Jap-Sin I, 151 (same edition, with a frontispiece)
Source: Albert Chan, S.J., Chinese Books and Documents in the Jesuit Archives in Rome, pp. 169-170.