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Da ke wen 答客問. [Jap-Sin I, 146. Jap-Sin I, 166b]
AuthorZhu Zongyuan 朱宗元, juren 1648
Pub. Location---Publisher---
Daten.d.Phys. Desc.1 juan.
For this title see: Da ke wen 答客問 and Die Aufnahme europäischer Inhalte in die chinesische Kultur durch Zhu Zongyuan (ca. 1616-1660).

JapSin I, 146
Da ke wen 答客問.
By Zhu Zongyuan 朱宗元.
One juan. Chinese bamboo paper in one volume. No date or place of publication.

The cover bears the title with a Latin inscription: “V. RR [vera responsa] ad quaesita a licentiato christ. Chu çum yuen.”
The preface (four folios) by Lin Wenying 林文英 (zi 碧山, 暢若) of Fujian was written in 1697 (Kangxi 36).
There are nine columns in each half folio with twenty-one characters in the first column of each paragraph. The rest of each paragraph has twenty characters per column. The upper middle of each folio bears the title with the number of the folio below the fish tail. The main text consists of fifty-eight folios. Folio 1 bears the title and the names of the author and the reviser: 古越朱宗元維城父條答同學張能信成義父訂正 (Replies to the questions one by one by Zhu Zongyuan, zi Weicheng, of the ancient state of Yue, revised by Zhang Nengxin, zi Chengyi).

In the Zhengshi lüeshuo (Jap-Sin I, 145) Zhu Zongyuan says of the Da ke wen: “What I could express by words of mouth, I would not spare my insignificance. I was prone to arguments and [as a result] I published the Da ke wen . . .” (cf. Hsü 1949, p. 156). According to the preface of Lin Wenying the author wrote this book when he was 23 sui. It deals with the teaching of the Catholic Church and presents apologies against false religion. Lin Wenying has high praise for the zeal of the author of this book, saying that he was a great worshipper of the Lord of Heaven and that he was eager to communicate his knowledge of God to others. “The readers, therefore, need not think unjustly that this book deals with learning from the West; rather they should realize that it deals throughout with the religion we Confucians should embrace; since this religion is a practical one, its doctrine agrees with ours and [even] its mental attitude, in general, is the same as ours.”

According to the preface, new printing blocks were being prepared for the Da ke wen by Mr. Su 蘇先生 around the year 1697. This makes us think that he was José Soares (1656–1736), whose Chinese name was Su Lin 蘇霖 (zi 沛蒼).
The Yin Xian zhi 鄞縣志, compiled in the Kangxi period, gives the biography of Zhu Zongyuan, who was a native of this district (Ningbo 寧波, Zhejiang). He was a tribute student (gongsheng 貢生) of 1646 (Shunzhi 3). Two years later he obtained the juren degree. We are told that he was learned and an accomplished essayist.
Antonio de Gouvea in his Asia Extrema speaks of a young scholar who was baptized in Hangzhou by Manuel Dias Jr. and took the Christian name Cosmas. Later he returned to his native Ningbo and invited the missioners to come to evangelize the people there. His mother also was converted to the faith. In the letters of missioners Zhu Zongyuan is often named Cosmas, which seems to identify him with the young man baptized by Manuel Dias. In 1640 there were 560 neophytes, according to Colombel (vol. I, p. 323), among whom were three brothers of a Zhu family that came from a gentry class. Their Christian names were: Peter, Cosmas, and Mathias. Cosmas seems to have been the second of the three brothers. Besides writing the above mentioned books, Zhu Zongyuan seems to have given much help to the missioners in their writings. So he polished the style of Qingshi jinshu 輕世金書, the Chinese translation of the Imitatio Christi, made by Yang Manuo 陽瑪諾 (Manuel Dias Jr.) and published in 1640 (Chongzhen 13). He also wrote a preface for another book by Manuel Dias, namely, the Tianzhu shengjiao shijie zhiquan 天主聖教十誡直詮 (A straightforward explanation of the Ten Commandments of the holy Church of God). Zhu Zongyuan was also one of the revisers of the Tianxue lüeyi 天學略義 written by João Monteiro 孟儒望 and published in Ningbo in 1642 (Chongzhen 15) and of the Tizhengpian 提正篇, written by Girolamo de Gravina and published in 1659 (Shunzhi 16). The Tianzhu shengjiao huoyi 天主聖教豁疑, a booklet in less than a thousand characters, bears Zhu Zongyuan’s name as its narrator and that of Qu Dude 瞿篤德 (Stanislao Torrente, 1616–1681) as its reviser.

Cf. Hsü 1949, pp. 154–155; JWC 2:91–98; Jap-Sin II, 75.

[Author’s note: Jap-Sin I, 147, 147a, 147b, 147c, 147d and 147e: six texts, composed by Iacomo Rho, bound together in one volume European style.]
Source: Albert Chan, S.J., Chinese Books and Documents in the Jesuit Archives in Rome, pp. 192-194.

JapSin I, 166.b
Da ke wen 答客問.
By Zhu Zongyuan 朱宗元.
One juan. Chinese bamboo paper in one volume. No date or place of publication.

The cover is somewhat torn. It has a Latin inscription: “Responsa ad questiones circa varias res religionis christianae | et idolatricae | a licentiato christiano Chu Çum yuen.”
This is a duplicate of Jap-Sin I, 146.
Source: Albert Chan, S.J., Chinese Books and Documents in the Jesuit Archives in Rome, pp. 220-221.
Subject(s)Catholic Church--China--Apologetic works--Ming dynasty, 1368-1644
Catholic Church--China--Doctrines--17th century--Sources
Rec. TypeBook (stitch-bound 線裝本)LanguageChinese 中文
CollectionARSIRec. #14569