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Wuwei lizhi 五緯曆指. [Jap-Sin II, 25]
AuthorRho, Giacomo 羅雅谷, 1592-1638
Pub. Location---Publisher---
Date1635Phys. Desc.9 juan.
Full descriptive bibliography see: Ad Dudink & Nicolas Standaert, Chinese Christian Texts Database (CCT-Database).

JapSin II, 25
Wuwei lizhi 五緯曆指.
By Luo Yagu 羅雅谷 (Giacomo Rho).
Nine juan. Bamboo paper in nine ce bound in one volume, European style.

The cover bears a label with the title and a Latin inscription: “Modus calculandi | motus quinque | planetarum | a p. Jac. Rho, S.J. | 9 tomi.”
The title page is missing. The recto of folio 1, juan 1, gives: 曆指第十六卷,五緯一,總論,法原部. It then gives the names of the Chief Minister of the Astronomical Bureau (Xu Guangqi): 明太子太保禮部尚書兼文淵閣大學士徐光啟 and of his assistant (Li Tianjing): 山東布政使司右參政李天經督修. Then follow the names of the author (Giacomo Rho) and the reviser (Johann Adam Schall): 修正曆法極西耶穌會士羅雅谷撰湯若望訂 and of the proofreaders, students or assistants at the Astronomical Bureau (Cheng Tingrui, Song Kecheng, Zhu Tingshu, Zhu Guangxian, Li Cibin, and Pan Guoxiang): 門人程廷瑞,宋可成,朱廷樞,朱光顯,李次[bin, Unicode U+224B9 similar to 虨],潘國祥受法.
Each half folio has nine columns with twenty-two characters in the first column of each paragraph and twenty-one in the rest of the paragraph. Annotations are given in smaller type and in double lines. The title of the book is given in the middle of each folio with the number of the juan and the number of the folio below. In juan 2, folios 33–37 are missing and in juan 3 folio 9.
Pfister (p. 191, no. 11) gives the title of this book as “Manière d’ordonner et de faire les calcus pour les 5 planètes,” and Couplet: “Ad Planetarum ordines manuductio.”
This book is part of the Chongzhen lishu (cf. Jap-Sin II, 15), of which series Rho had written eleven books. As we have seen above, the Wuwei lizhi is put under the section fayuan 法原 (the origin, i.e., the rudiments, of the system). When Xu Guangqi started to reform the calendar, he had a project of translating essential books on Western astronomy and he emphasized the importance of the rudiments of astronomical knowledge. Of the 137 juan of the Chongzhen lishu, the fayuan section occupies forty odd juan (i.e., thirty percent of the whole series). This shows how much importance Xu Guangqi paid to it.
The Wuwei lizhi covers juan 16–24. The four other books entitled lizhi in the Chongzhen lishu are:

1. Hengxing lizhi 恆星曆指 (Theory on the fixed stars) by Adam Schall (juan 1–4),
2. Yueli lizhi 月離曆指 (Theory on the moon) by Giacomo Rho (juan 5–8),
3. Jiaoshi lizhi 交食曆指 (Theory on the eclipse of the sun and moon) by Adam Schall (juan 9–15),
4. Richan lizhi 日躔曆指 (Theory on the sun) by Giacomo Rho (juan 25).

Although this book is part of the Chongzhen lishu, the edition is that of 1645 (Shunzhi 2), when the collection was reduced to 103 juan with a new title Xiyang xinfa lishu 西洋新法曆書 (cf. Hsü 1949, pp. 239–253).
Students who were being trained in the Western method served in the Astronomical Bureau. Their names appear in this book and can be seen at the beginning of each juan; seemingly they were the proofreaders. Some of them appear more than once. Zhu Tingshu 朱廷樞, in particular, appears in all the juan. The following are their names as they appear in different juan:

Juan 16: Cheng Tingrui, Song Kecheng, Zhu Tingshu, Zhu Guangxian, Li Cibin, and Pan Guoxiang (the six aforementioned students).

Juan 17: Wang Yinglin 王應遴, Ge Jiwen 戈繼文, Zhu Tingshu, Zhou Shitai 周世泰, Wu Mingzhu 鄔明著, Xu Huan 徐瑍.
Juan 18: Cheng Tingrui, Zhou Shicui 周士萃, Zhu Tingshu, Liu Youtai 劉有泰, Chen Shilan 陳士蘭, Yin Kai 殷鎧.
Juan 19: Zhou Yin 周胤, Sun Youben 孫有本, Zhu Tingshu, Bao Yingqi 鮑英齊, Zuo Yunhe 左允和, Liu Yunde 劉蘊德.
Juan 20: Jia Liangdong 賈良棟, Zhang Youzhuan 掌有篆, Zhu Tingshu, Zhou Shichang 周士昌, Cheng Tingrui, Wu Zhiyan 武之彥.
Juan 21: Yang Zhihua 楊之華, Li Hua 李華, Zhu Tingshu, Chen Zhengjian 陳正諫, Huang Hongxian 黃宏憲, Song Keli 宋可立.
Juan 22: Liu Youqing 劉有慶, Li Zubai 李祖白, Zhu Tingshu, Zhu Guangda 朱光大, Cheng Tingrui, Song Fa 宋發.
Juan 23: Zhu Guoshou 朱國壽, Jia Liangqi 賈良琦, Zhu Tingshu, Jiao Yingxu 焦應旭, Huang Hongxian, Liu Youtai.
Juan 24: Ge Chengke 戈承科, Xu Huan, Zhu Tingshu, Zhang Cheng 掌乘, Zhu Guoshou, Liu Yunde.

Most of these students continued to serve at the Astronomical Bureau under the Qing dynasty as we see in the memorial to the throne written in 1644 (Shunzhi 1, cf. Jap-Sin II, 37). Many of them had been Christians (cf. Jap-Sin, 157), among whom was Li Zubin, the son of Li Zhizao. Five of them, Li Zubai, Song Kecheng, Song Fa, Zhu Guangxian, and Liu Youtai lost their lives during the persecution of Yang Guangxian 楊光先 in 1665 (Kangxi 4). Many of the names in our list appear in the memorials to the throne of Xu Guangqi (cf. Wang Zhongmin 王重民, Xu Guangqi ji 徐光啟集, Shanghai, 1963, juan B, pp. 392, 394, 401, 427–429). This shows that they served the Ming and the Qing government.

Liu Yunde (zi 素公, 1628–1707), one of the proofreaders (ch. 19 and 24), was a native of Huguang province. He was vice-president (you jianfu 右監副) of the Imperial Observatory. During the Kangxi period he was sent to Shanxi to supervise mining. Later he lost his office as the result of a calumny. It was then that he turned to Christianity and was baptized by Ferdinand Verbiest as Basilius (Blaise) and took his European name, Verbiest. In 1684 he became a Jesuit and in 1688 he was ordained priest in Nanjing, together with the renowned Chinese painter Wu Li 吳歷 (1631–1718) and (Paulus) Wan Qiyuan 萬其淵 (zi 三泉, 1635–1700) by the first Chinese bishop, Luo Wenzao 羅文藻 (known to Europeans as Gregorio López). For many years Liu worked in Shanghai and Nanjing. He died in Nanjing in 1707 (cf. Pfister, pp. 402–403; JWC 2:227–230; Répertoire, p. 288; SF, vol. VI, p. 646).
Source: Albert Chan, S.J., Chinese Books and Documents in the Jesuit Archives in Rome, pp. 306-309.

Subject(s)Astronomy--Mathematics--China--History--17th-18th centuries
Astronomy--China--History--Early works to 1800
Calendar reform--China--History--Ming-Qing dynasties, 1368-1911--Sources
Rec. TypeBook (stitch-bound 線裝本)LanguageChinese 中文
CollectionARSIRec. #14685