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Mingmo Tianzhujiao Shengmu tuxiang suojian de Shengmu shenhua yu Guanyin xinyang 明末天主教聖母圖像所見的聖母神化與觀音信仰. [Deification of the Virgin Mary and the Cult of Guanyin in the Catholic Madonna Images from Late-Ming China]
AuthorChen Hui-hung 陳慧宏 [Chen Huihong]
Guoji bijiao wenxue 國際比較文學 (Shanghai)
Pub. LocationShanghai 上海PublisherShanghai shifan daxue 上海師範大學
Date2018Phys. Desc.pdf [15 p. : ill.]
LocationDigital ArchivesCall NumberN8070.C53 2018d
Mingmo Tianzhujiao Shengmu tuxiang suojian de Shengmu shenhua yu Guanyin xinyang 明末天主教聖母圖像所見的聖母神化與觀音信仰. [Deification of the Virgin Mary and the Cult of Guanyin in the Catholic Madonna Images from Late-Ming China] / Chen Hui-hung 陳慧宏.
Article in: Guoji bijiao wenxue 国际比较文学 = International Comparative Literature: Vol.1, No.1 (2018): 061-075 (2018 年第1卷第1期), pp. [061]-075.
Bibliography: p. 074-075.

Abstract: In the early twentieth century, a picture of a female figure with a child was discovered in Xi’an, China. There are two competing views on its origins: one is to link it to the Franciscan mission to China; the other to the Jesuits. For the former, the picture was identified as a white-robed Guanyin; the latter, a Chinese duplicate of an image of Madonna with Child from Rome. Thus in an intercultural setting, the figure of the picture could be identified as both the Buddhist Guanyin and the Catholic Virgin Mary. The complexity of image recognition in this case indicates that interactions of the Catholic Madonna Images with Chinese visual discourses went beyond Catholic iconography and missionary control. This article intends to offer a preliminary discussion of the Guanyin/Madonna iconography perceived in the Jesuit late-Ming context, a topic to which there has been surprisingly little attention. I demonstrate that during this period the central theme of the iconography was the concept of Madonna as the “Queen of Heaven.” From this perspective, local agency would have exceeded Jesuit evangelistic strategy and the Virgin Mary could have been deified as an independent goddess. This would not only have offended Marian theology but would have provided the necessary context for associating images of Madonna with the cult of Guanyin.

摘要: 20世紀初西安所發現的女性抱子像,近來研究有兩種說法,一是認為此像跟方濟會有關,二是 與耶穌會有關。方濟會之說,稱其為中國的白衣送子觀音像,而圖像來源來自方濟會士;耶穌會之說,稱 其為羅馬聖母抱子像的中國複製。在圖像的文化交流脈絡下,它可能既作為觀音,也作為天主聖母。圖像 認定在跨文化交流下的複雜性,透露了天主教聖母抱子像可能與中國的視覺互動,遠超出傳教士所能掌 控的圖像學。其實,並沒有更多的方濟會傳教遺存得以重建其脈絡,晚明天主聖母圖像的引入中國,其耶 穌會之歷史脈絡或更見具體。而觀音/聖母雙重圖像問題的解釋,對中國天主教的歷史或相應議題,有何 意義上的呈現,過去少見討論,本文從這個思考提出對圖像初步的解讀。明末以來所見的聖母像,是以聖 母為“天后”的定義為中心,聖母死後升天而能完備其天后的獨特地位。從這個天主教圖像學的立場觀 之,聖母確實可以為“神”。而無原罪聖母是主張聖母以無原罪之身懷有耶穌,這個圖像及教義也傳入中 國。聖母的天后之尊,促成了在地文化將聖母單獨地神祇化成單一女神,但這卻違背天主教神學的中心意 旨。聖母單獨變成地方女神,甚至被觀音信仰吸收而轉化,在地化的力量應該是大過於傳教士的策略。 關鍵詞: 聖母像;天主;無原罪聖母;楊廷筠;澳門大三巴門坊 作者簡介: 陳慧宏,台灣大學歷史系副教授,美國布朗大學藝術及建築史系博士。主要研究領域以 耶穌會為中心,跨及歐洲人與非歐洲文化接觸的近現代早期歐洲史,和基督宗教在近現代中國的歷史研 究。另亦以天主教聖像的視覺文化研究,結合藝術史與歷史學研究的視野,關注近現代中歐雙方在視覺 上和宗教議題上的接觸交流。

Local access: dig.pdf. [Chen-Virgin Mary & Guanyin.pdf]
N.B. Library of Congress officially auth. use: Avalokiteśvara (Buddhist deity), x-ref Guanyin, Kannon, Kun lam, Zhanraĭsig.

Keywords: Madonna image or icon; Lord of Heaven; Immaculate Conception; Ting-yun Yang; St. Paul’s Façade of Macao.
關鍵詞: 聖母像;天主;無原罪聖母;楊廷筠;澳門大三巴門坊.

Subject(s)Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint--Art--China--History
Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint--Pictorial works--China
Guanyin 觀音 (Buddhist deity)--Art--Christian influences
Guanyin 觀音 (Buddhist deity)--Art--China--History
Christianity--China--Influence
Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint--Art--China--Influence
Rec. TypeExtract (PDF)LanguageChinese 中文[簡體字]
CollectionRicci Institute LibraryRec. #19718