|Privileges for being slaves: Christian missionaries in the early Qing court / by Litian Swen.|
Thesis (Ph.D., History)—-City University of New York, 2019.
This dissertation works to elucidate the long-term confusion over the identity of the
Christian fathers in the early Qing court. The identity for which this dissertation argues is
straightforward: Christian fathers were identified by the Kangxi emperor as his family slaves.
The master-slave relationship has long been overlooked because it was overshadowed by an
overwhelming focus on the Jesuit Adam Schall, who entered the Manchu court as a Chinese-style
minister. Shifting the focus from Schall, this dissertation starts by showing two seldom
mentioned Jesuits, Ludovico Buglio and Gabriel de Magalhaens, who entered into Manchu
service as slaves. It was, this dissertation shows, not Schall but Buglio, Magalhaens, and the
network they built through their slave status that set the foundation for future Jesuits’
successful participation in the Manchu empire. With the master-slave relationship between
Kangxi and the Christian fathers established, the fourth and fifth chapters examine Kangxi’s
receptions of the two papal legations as family guests instead of as foreign embassies of
The identity of the Christian missionaries, this dissertation shows, determined both rise
and fall of the Christian mission in the Kangxi and Yongzheng’s reigns.
Chapter 1: Jesuits’ Entrance as Slaves into the Manchu's World
Chapter 2: The Calendar Case 1664 and the Beijing Jesuits' Adjustment of Strategy
Chapter 3: The Jesuits' Identity in Kangxi's Court
Chapter 4: Kangxi, the Jesuits, and the First Papal Legation to China
Chapter 5: Kangxi's Fourteen-Year Wait and the Second Papal Legation
Chapter 6: Yongzheng's Prohibition of Christianity in 1724
Local access dig.pdf. [Swen-Privileges.pdf]