|Shengjiao yuanliu 聖教源流 [Jap-Sin I, 142] / Zhu Yupo 朱毓朴.|
In: Yesuhui Luoma dang'anguan Ming-Qing Tianzhujiao wenxian 耶穌會羅馬檔案館明清天主教文獻 / Edited by Nicolas Standaert [鐘鳴旦] [and] Adrian Dudink [杜鼎克]. See
"Joseph Zhu Yupu (Yupo) ... prepared
Shengjiao yuanliu, a report of Rui de Figueiredo (1594-1642) on catechesation in Kaifeng in 1636"--Cf. Standaert, Handbook of Christianity in China, p. 438.
"Catechisms virtually always contained a list of the seven sacraments (baptism, confirmation, confession, eucharist and communion, marriage, priesthood, and extreme unction), sometimes followed by short explanations. note 37: An exception is Shengjiao yuanliu (1636), a catechism in colloquial language dictated by Rui (Rodrigo) de Figueiredo, SJ, to a catechist, which contains detailed information on the sacraments and on related daily practices (as prescribed by the missionaries). See BNF Chinois 6882-6883 and ARSI Jap.Sin. I, 142; the part on the seven sacraments covers seven juan (in all, 79 folios)--Cf. Handbook of Christianity in China, p. 624.
Jap-Sin I, 142
Shengjiao yuanliu 聖教源流.
By Zhu Yupu朱毓朴.
Originally in four volumes, but now bound in only two. The volumes are not in the right order. Chinese bamboo paper.
No date or place of publication.
The cover bears the title of the book in ink together with the author’s name: 朱毓朴若瑟撰 (Written by Joseph Zhu Yupu). The Latin inscription reads: "Xim kiao yuen lieu | Sae Legis ortus & progressus | Auctore videtur ex familia Chu Io po. Nomen Joseph | Videtur Catechismus."
There is a preface by the author (one folio), dated 1635 (Chongzhen 8). There is a folio before the preface with an inscription in ink that reads: . . . 年九月初七日雨窗刪改 (Corrections made on the seventh day of the ninth month of the . . . year beside the window while it was raining). The directions for the readers consist of one folio and the table of contents of two folios.
The first volume (volumes one and two of the original work) begins with juan 1–7 and contains the folios 5–103 (Arabic numbers). The second volume (volumes three and four of the original work) begins with juan 8–9 (there are only two folios in juan 9) and then repeats juan 1–6; it contains the folios 104–192 (Arabic numbers).
There are nine columns in each half folio. The first column of each paragraph has twenty characters and the rest of the paragraph eighteen. The upper middle of each folio bears the title of the book; below the fish tail are given the number of the folio and the title of the chapter. Arabic numbers are given below it.
Each juan bears the title of the book on the first folio, with the author’s name: 周國宗姓朱毓朴 | 教號若瑟錄梓 (Recorded and published by Zhu Yupu, whose Christian name is Joseph, of Imperial descent in the state of Zhou). There is a red seal in seal characters on folio 1 of the first volumes, which reads: 天學罪人 (A sinner of the Catholic church). The book is thoroughly punctuated with a good number of corrections and comments on the top margins of the folios. From the title of the book one may easily conjecture that it is a history of the church. In reality it is only a catechism.
Although the authorship of the book is attributed to Zhu Yupu, in his preface Zhu makes it clear that he merely recorded what was dictated to him by a missioner. He was a friend of the Western missioner and a seeker after perfection. Accordingly he explains in detail how God created heaven, earth and man, how the incarnation took place and how the Apostles were called (by Christ). The account was recorded and published by him so that his fellow catechumens might use it for their instruction.
According to Courant (no. 6882) and Pfister (p. 160, no. 1) the real author of this book was Rui de Figueiredo. The second paragraph of the directions for the readers says that originally the book was not meant to be written; rather it was a dialogue between the writer and the master (whom he does not mention explicitly by name). The writer also points out that it was decided to use the vernacular instead of classical Chinese, because the former would be understood more easily by the common people. The fourteenth paragraph of the directions to the readers tells us that "this book, written by me, is quite different from the books written in Western languages. These are polished whereas this book [of mine] contains nothing but the language of the common people. There are many books in the Western languages in the church, but I have not copied anything from them; and if I have borrowed some of their ideas, I have done so only after purging them of their flowery expressions and I have kept them as natural as possible." Again, in the fifth paragraph the author remarks that the book was started in the tenth month of the eighth year of the Chongzhen reign (1635) and was finished in the seventh month of the following year, a period of over nine months. He admits that the work was difficult and finally that it was done with the advice of the master. This makes us think that perhaps the book was dictated by Rui de Figueiredo and taken down by Zhu Yupu, who wrote in the simple language of the people and for their instruction. Zhu’s book, being written by a descendant of the imperial family, would no doubt exert more influence on the people than one written by a missioner.
This book explains the teaching of the Catholic church in great detail. The examples to illustrate it are adapted to the daily life of the common people. Take the section on the Seventh Commandment, for instance. It deals with the problems of business transaction, of card games and other forms of gambling. The book also reveals a number of the religious practices of the church at the end of the Ming and the beginning of the Qing dynasties. So when the text deals with the way of going to confession, it says: "When the priest is asked to hear a confession and when he is seated, [the penitent] should kneel by his side and take off his hat, and make a kow tow. He then makes the sign of the cross, recites the prayer . . . He should acknowledge his sins with a sincere heart for absolution, as if he were a criminal before the magistrate in the yamen (vol. 2, juan 4, f. 4r) . . . [when one manifests one’s sins,] one should observe the rule, namely, one must first mention one’s Chinese name as well as one’s Christian name" (f. 8v). In connection with the first of the minor orders, that of porter, the text remarks: "According to the rule, when there are ceremonies in the church, he who desires to become a Catholic is permitted, after receiving the Holy Scriptures, to come for instruction, but he is not allowed to attend Mass, [i.e.] to look at the holy body of Jesus. When the priest is saying Mass and before he comes to the elevation of the host, the porter should notify the catechumen that he is to retire" (vol. 2, juan 6, f. 4r). At the end of the book there is a postscript that reads:
We are travellers in this world. Let us, therefore, look for a clean room in our lodging place. When we die, we are going home. Let us, therefore, look for a wide and plain road. Let us not sow thorny bushes along our ways. Let us furnish our rooms with the lute and sword and be vigilant against the seven [capital] sins. At all times we should be wary of our three enemies. Never should we be confused between the truth and falsehood, true happiness and apparent happiness. The four principles that we have laid down should serve as the fare that we need for our journey home and the miscellaneous subdivisions as rent for our living quarters. Keep to your reason and suppress your [inordinate] desires that you may be saved from the gate of hell. Follow the source [of happiness], that you may find the path to Heaven. Behold, this is the postscript with the scanty words that I wish to convey to my like minded friends.
Source: Albert Chan, S.J., Chinese Books and Documents in the Jesuit Archives in Rome, pp. 186-189.