|Jiaoyou lun 交友論 / Ouluobaren Li Madou zhuan 歐羅巴人利瑪竇譔.|
Jesuit Archives (ARSI) JapSin I, 49
Jiaoyou lun 交友論
By Li Madou 利瑪竇 (Matteo Ricci).
One juan in one volume. Chinese bamboo paper. Published by the Qinyitang 欽一堂 of Fuzhou (Fujian). No date of publication.
The cover bears the title in Chinese and a Latin inscription: “De Amicitia a p. Matth. Ricci, S.J.”
There is a preface by Feng Yingjing 馮應京 (ff. 1–3), dated 1601 (Wanli 29). The preface by Qu Rukui 瞿汝夔 (ff. 3–4) is dated 1599 (Wanli 27).
The beginning of folio 5 gives the title in Chinese, followed by the author’s name: 歐羅巴人利瑪竇譔 (written by the European Li Madou) and the place of publication: 閩中欽一堂梓 (published by the Qinyitang of Fuzhou). The main text consists of eleven folios. Each half folio contains nine columns with twenty characters in each column. Annotations are in double lines and in small characters. The upper center of each folio bears the title, followed by the number of folio.
At the end of the book there is an inscription, which gives the date [24 April 1595]: 萬曆二十三年歲次乙未月望日 (Wanli 23, the annual era being yiwei, the fifteenth of the third month, i.e., 24 April 1595). Is this the date of the original publication? Pfister seems to think so. Fang Hao thinks that this is not possible, since Ricci had not arrived in Nanchang at this time (see below). The Vatican Library possesses two editions of this book, one (R.G. Oriente III, 223.9 and Borgia Cinese 512.4) published in 1599 (Wanli 27), according to Pfister in Nanjing, and the other (Borgia Cinese 324.10) published in 1601 (Wanli 29) in Beijing by Feng Yingjing.
This book on friendship was written at the request of the Prince of Jian’an 建安王, residing in Nanchang (Jiangxi). Ricci was in Nanchang towards the end of June 1595. He was the guest of the Prince of Jian’an, who wanted to know the view of Europeans on friendship. This was the first book written in Chinese by Ricci. It was so well accepted by scholars that it was reprinted many times and was included in the following collections: Tianxue chuhan 天學初函, Baoyantang biji 寶顏堂秘笈, Yixi[chi] bicun 一瓻筆存, Guang baiquan xuehai 廣百川學海, Shanlin jingji ji 山林經濟籍, Shuofu xuji 說郛續集, Jianhu biji 堅瓠秘集, Gujin tushu jicheng 古今圖書集成 and Congshu jicheng chubian 叢書集成初編. Both the Xiaochuang bieji 小窗別紀 of Wu Congxian 吳從先 (prefaces of 1614 and 1615; see Wang 1983, p. 398) and the Zhuyi 朱翼 of Jiang Xuqi 江旭奇 (prefaces of 1616; see Wang 1983, p. 383) contain some quotations from the Jiaoyou lun. In the Yugangzhai bizhu 鬱岡齋筆麈 Ricci’s original text has been corrected by Wang Kentang 王肯堂 (fl. 1600), cf. SKTY 3:2629.
Fang Hao has made a study of the Jiaoyou lun ("Li Madou Jiaoyou lun xinyan 利瑪竇交友論新研", published in 1954 and reproduced in Fang Hao 1969, vol. 2, pp. 1849–1870; partially translated in: Fang Hao, "Notes on Matteo Ricci’s De Amicitia", Monumenta Serica 14/1949–1955, pp. 574–583). In this article he studied the different editions of this book. He also tried to correct the errors in D’Elia’s article "Il Trattato sull’Amicizia, Primo Libro scritto in cinese da Matteo Ricci, S.I." (Studia Missionalia, VII, 1952, pp. 425–515) and in his Fonti Ricciane (for the reply of D’Elia, see "Further Notes on Matteo Ricci’s De Amicitia," Monumenta Serica 15/1956, pp. 356–377). Finally he tried to trace the sources of the Jiaoyou lun in the works of Greek and Latin authors and in the fathers of the church.
Cf. Stanislaus Gné & J. Dehergne, “Le «Traité de l’amitié» de Matthieu Ricci” in Bulletin de l’Université l’Aurore 8 (Shanghai, 1947), pp. 579–619. For the biography of Qu Rukui, see JWC 1:274–283.
Source: Albert Chan, S.J., Chinese Books and Documents in the Jesuit Archives in Rome, pp. 77-79.